Philip suffered serious wounds in battle such as the loss of an eye, a broken shoulder and a crippled leg.
But he just kept on fighting, something Alexander would do as commander."Cambridge University professor Paul Cartledge writes in his book "Alexander the Great" (Mac Millan, 2004) that Philip decided to leave his 16-year-old son in charge of Macedonia while he was away on campaign.
Persia gave him money and ships and in return "Agis sent the money and triremes [a type of ship] to his brother Agesilaos, directing him to pay the salaries of the crews, and to sail directly to Crete to settle the affairs of the island for the benefit of Sparta," writes Hadjidaki.
In his excavations he has found that, with Persian support, the Spartans built fortifications and a larger harbor at Phalasarna.
The dream was passed onto Alexander, partly via his mother Olympias, according to Abernethy.
"She fostered in him a burning dynastic ambition and told him it was his destiny to invade Persia."Upon his father's death, Alexander moved quickly to consolidate power.However, when Alexander gave the Persian king battle, it turned out Darius had been led to a narrow spot where the Persians could not use their superior numbers effectively.Arrian wrote that, against the experienced Macedonian troops, Darius's left wing was "routed" almost immediately.Indeed, ancient records indicate that the two became estranged later in Alexander's teenage years and at one point his mother was exiled to Epirus. while celebrating the wedding of his daughter Cleopatra (not the famous Egyptian pharaoh)."Alexander may have resented his father's many marriages and the children born from them, seeing them as a threat to his own position," said Abernethy. The person who stabbed him was said to have been one of Philip's former male lovers, named Pausanias.The second key battle he won, and perhaps the most important, was the Battle of Issus, fought in 333 B. near the ancient town of Issus in southern Turkey, close to modern-day Syria.In that battle, the Persians were led by Darius III himself.The teachings of Aristotle [would later aid] him in the treatment of his new subjects in the empires he invaded and conquered, allowing him to admire and maintain these disparate cultures."Alexander watched his father campaign nearly every year and win victory after victory.Philip remodeled the Macedonian army from citizen-warriors into a professional organization.He arranged for Alexander to be tutored by Aristotle himself …His education infused him with a love of knowledge, logic, philosophy, music and culture.