Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids are the most common drugs used to treat inflammation.
Gastrointestinal side effect is a major side effect associated with the currently available non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which limit their application.
The ensuing studies presented in this thesis as well as several studies by others gave rise to an emerging new hypothesis that can fundamentally transform the way we understand the immune-boosting activity of medicinal plants.
Chapter 1 gives a brief introduction and history of the most widely accepted herbal medicinal practices around the world.
With this knowledge, we wondered about the identities of these bacteria.
It was an opportune time to ask this question as the powerful next-generation sequencing tools, such as Illumina sequencing were becoming widely available at that time.
Batch-to-batch variability is a major problem because it raises concerns about quality, safety and efficacy (QSE) of herbal medicines.
In order to reduce the batch-to-batch variability, therapeutically relevant compounds have to be identified and used to standardize herbal medicines.
In conclusion, this thesis work identified bacterial LPSs as the key immune-boosting factors of JTT and Ashwagandha.
Our findings, together with the discovery of similar bacterial LPSs in , suggest that the immunostimulatory activity of many other medicinal plants might originate from bacterial LPSs as well.