A.P. Biology Essay Questions

State the conclusions reached by Mendel in his work on the inheritance of characteristics.

Explain how each of the following deviates from these conclusions. Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning DNA.

Describe the chemical composition and configuration of enzymes and discuss the factors that modify enzyme structure and/or function. After an enzyme is mixed with its substrate, the amount of product formed is determined at 10-second intervals for 1 minute.

Data from this experiment are shown below: Unit 3 (Cell Structure and Function, Cell division) 5. A laboratory assistant prepared solution of 0.8 M, 0.6 M, 0.4 M, and 0.2 M sucrose, but forgot to label them.

Describe the fluid-mosaic model of a plasma membrane. Include a description of mitosis and cytokinesis, and of the other phases of the cell cycle. After realizing the error, the assistant randomly labeled the flasks containing these four unknown solutions as flask A, flask B, flask C, and flask D.

Discuss the role of the membrane in the movement of materials through it by each of the following processes: 6. Indicate the ways in which a nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell would differ in structure from this generalized eukaryotic plant cell. Design an experiment, based on the principles of diffusion and osmosis, that the assistant could use to determine which of the flasks contains each of the four unknown solutions.Explain how ATP is involved in each example you choose.Unit 5 (Meiosis, Mendelian Genetics, DNA Replication) 17.Include in your answer (a) a description of how you would set up and perform the experiment: (b) the results you would expect from your experiments: and (c) an explanation of those results based on the principles involved.(Be sure to clearly state the principles addressed in your discussion.) 9. Choose THREE of the following four types of cellular transport.methionine – leucine – glutamic acid – proline – arginine Describe the steps in the synthesis of this polypeptide.What would be the effect of a deletion or an addition in one of the DNA nucleotides?Describe each classical experiment and indicate how it provided evidence for the chemical nature of the gene. Discuss Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment.Explain how the events of meiosis I account for the observations that led Mendel to formulate these laws. An organism is heterozygous at two genetic loci on different chromosomes.Begin with the separation of the messenger RNA from the DNA template and end with the release of the protein at the plasma membrane. Describe the steps of protein synthesis, beginning with the attachment of a messenger RNA molecule to the small subunit of a ribosome and ending generalized with the release of the polypeptide from the ribosome.Include in your answer a discussion of how the different types of RNA function in this process. The diagram below shows a segment of DNA with a total length of 4,900 base pairs.

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