You do not need to cite a source for material considered common knowledge: General common knowledge is factual information considered to be in the public domain, such as birth and death dates of well-known figures, and generally accepted dates of military, political, literary, and other historical events.
In general, factual information contained in multiple standard reference works can usually be considered to be in the public domain.
If all these phrases were in red, the paraphrase would look much like the “patchwork” example.
The difference is that the phrases in the legitimate paraphrase are all precise, economical, and conventional designations that are part of the shared language within the nursing discipline (in the too-close paraphrases, they’re red only when used within a longer borrowed phrase).
Paraphrasing is often defined as putting a passage from an author into “your own words.” But what are your own words?
How different must your paraphrase be from the original?
Critical care nurses function in a hierarchy of roles.
In this open heart surgery unit, the nurse manager hires and fires the nursing personnel. Staff nurses are assigned to patients to provide all their nursing care. 156) Notice that the writer has not only “borrowed” Chase’s material (the results of her research) with no acknowledgment, but has also largely maintained the author’s method of expression and sentence structure.
In an intermediate position in the hierarchy is the resource nurse, a staff nurse with more experience than the others, who assumes direct care of patients as the other staff nurses do, but also takes on tasks to ensure the smooth operation of the entire facility.
The writer has documented Chase’s material and specific language (by direct reference to the author and by quotation marks around language taken directly from the source).