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Her and her husband Yao, who is Chinese-American both worked full-time until Sudi became pregnant with their second child, Emma. Sudi first pregnancy went smoothly and she experienced no complications.
Other hormonal factors such as estrogen levels which decrease significantly in the postpartum period and regulate mood, memory, and cognition and brain function has been thought to play a major role in the onset of PPD.
“The specific effects are best characterized in the dopamine system where estrogen increases dopamine turnover through the regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase, degradative enzymes, and turnover dopaminergic receptors” (Leopold & Zoschnick, 1995, n.p.).
The DSM-IV added “the modifier “With Postpartum Onset” to describe episodes of Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar I or II Disorder and Brief Psychotic Disorder with onset within 4 weeks after childbirth” (Korstein, 2010, p. The upcoming edition of the DSM-V proposed an extension of the postpartum onset specifier to 6 months.
“If included, this would help increase access to insurance coverage to mental health services in pregnancy and postpartum.
“More than 60% of women have an onset of symptoms within the first 6 weeks postpartum, providing primary care physicians with the perfect opportunity for diagnosis” (Leopold & Zoschnick, 1995, n.p. “Multiple investigations into the etiology of postpartum depression have not reached a consensus” (Leopold & Zoschnick, 1995), hence the inclusion of it in the DSM-IV as separate category diagnostically different from Major Depression.
Biological theories suggest that deregulation of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine serve as the origin of PPD.
Onset can be dramatic and abrupt and can begin within 2 to 4 weeks postpartum or as early as 2 to 3 days.
Early symptoms include restlessness, irritability and insomnia.
Prior to this, no gender discussion had been included in the DSM, however, “with each edition, of the DSM, there has been greater attention paid to gender issues” (Kornstein, 2010, p. The DSM III eliminated this diagnosis due to lack of evidence that PPS was a distinct entity.
With the media attention being given to women who carried out infanticide and/or suicide during the postpartum period the necessity of inclusion of a disorder during the postpartum period became vital.