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These fries are then nurtured fro between three and four weeks into fingerlings which is the size suitable for use in the fish grow-out operation.In-between the nursery and grow-out operation is what the purpose of this manual referred to as the primary operation. (The last point is very important, as you don’t drain your water to constitute public nuisance).
may be rocky), far away from markets and/or supplies, etc. Poor farm and facility design: Ponds not compacted properly, leak a lot, may be too shallow, and consequently construction and maintenance costs become too high while optimum yields are not achieved, Poor accessibility to ponds, requiring workers to walk across difficult terrain to transfer fish from pond to vehicle or vice-versa. Poor Investment Plan: Several farmers assume that to be a commercial fish farmer one must have several large ponds. This ranges from complete lack of knowledge about the nutritional requirements and feeding of catfish to attempts at saving money by using cheap feeds.
Hence, they construct many ponds at once, which constrain their cash flow. Hiring family members who have little or no desire to learn proper fish farming techniques is a liability because most people find it difficult to dismiss them even after it has become apparent that they are the reason for the poor performance of the fish farm. Some farmers just do not feed their fish because they think fish will grow as long as they are in water.
The market is therefore, the driving force for commercial fish farming.
The key parameters that determine the levels of production and success in fish farming are water quality, feed quality and seed quality.
The longer the fish stay in the pond after they have stopped growing, the smaller the profit margin. If one intends to increase production and profit margins from producing eggs, then it is well known that the best way would be to feed the layers with quality layers mash and not growers mash.
Likewise, fish should be fed with the correct feed of the right quality. Do not appreciate that different management levels have different requirements which consequently affects stocking rates.Because of this, some farmers take a while to start production or may only afford to start production in one pond after all the investment. Start production before knowing what management options are available or Start looking for the market for fish when the fish is ready for sale. They do not realize that like all animals, best performance would be obtained if the fish have a balanced diet and that the feed needs to be palatable, easily digestible and does not disintegrate into the water before the fish can consume it.Meanwhile, because they are still feeding, the pond attains its maximum loading and fish stop growing. For the same reasons that the majority of poultry farmers would not think it wise to feed layers maize bran, a commercial fish farmer should not believe they can get the best production results by feeding catfish maize bran only.Fish growth and survival are closely related to water quality . All of their bodily functions are directly influenced by the temperature of the environment.So, while the markets determine aquaculture opportunity, the ecological and economic principles determine the choices for sustainable aquaculture e practices and technology.The nursery operation is the basis for the grow-out operation and as such it cannot be operated without the nursery.The nursery involves the inducement of the female fish to lay eggs, which are then fertilized; incubated and hatched fish are known as fries.Therefore, users of the manual are encouraged to understand the principles upon which this catfish farming production technology is based.This is because, the specific environment where the farm is located defines what additional opportunities and constraints in production one is likely to encounter.Here, one has to determine whether one wants to go into a big or small-scale commercial venture, secondly, the pond system to adopt, Re-circulatory system, earthen pond or concrete/plastic pond or both. Overhead tanks for holding water should also be installed.Step two: land, a very critical aspect of your fish farming business plan In nigeria This is very important. The mechanism of pumping of water must be backed up. Step Four: Pond Construction aspect of Fish Farming Business Plan In Nigeria It is advisable to engage the service of a consultant.