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Individual publishers often have their own in-house variations as well, and some works are so long-established as to have their own citation methods too: Stephanus pagination for Plato; Bekker numbers for Aristotle; citing the Bible by book, chapter and verse; or Shakespeare notation by play.
In this way, what looks like a citation is actually supplementary material, or suggestions for further reading.
Depending on the choice of style, fully cited parenthetical references may require no end section.
References to single, machine-readable assertions in electronic scientific articles are known as nanopublications, a form of microattribution.
to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources, to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way, and to help the reader gauge the strength and validity of the material the author has used.
Specifically the high-ranking journals of medical science, including the Lancet, JAMA and New England Journal of Medicine, are thought to be associated with such behavior, with up to 30% of citations to these journals being generated by commissioned opinion articles.
On the other hand, the phenomenon of citation cartels is rising.
Another important issue is citation errors, which often occur due to carelessness on either the researcher or journal editor's part in the publication procedure.
Experts have found that simple precautions, such as consulting the author of a cited source about proper citations, reduce the likelihood of citation errors and thus increase the quality of research.
In-text references for online publications may differ from conventional parenthetical referencing.
A full reference can be hidden, only displayed when wanted by the reader, in the form of a tooltip.