Citation Style For Research Papers

Books, journals, and other articles are cited in a manner similar to APA and MLA style.

List the author's last name, a comma, and the full first name, followed by the title of the book in italics and title case, the place of publication, followed by a colon, followed by the publisher's name, a comma, and the date of publication, all in parentheses, followed by a comma and the page numbers.

An in-line citation—also called the in-text citation—is placed within a line of text.

To create an in-line citation, cite the name of the author and the date (in parentheses) of the article, report, book, or study, as this example from "A Pocket Style Manual" shows: Note how you list the page number at the end of the in-text citation in parentheses followed by a period (if it is at the end of a sentence).

There are actually many variations for references citations depending, for example, on whether you are citing a book, journal article, or newspaper story, or the many different kinds of media, including audio recordings and film. For such a citation, list the last name of the author, followed by a comma, followed by the first initial(s) of the author(s), followed by a period.

You would put the year the book was published in parentheses followed by a period, then the title of the book in italics using sentence case, followed by a comma, the place of publication, followed by a colon, and then the publisher, followed by a period."Works Cited" section citations are very similar in MLA and APA style, as in this example of a work with multiple authors from Purdue OWL: Note that you would also use a hanging indent in MLA, but it tends to be a bit shorter; move the second and subsequent lines in by three spaces.Spell out the first name of the author(s) in MLA style; add a comma before "et al."; use title case for the book, journal, or article title; omit the place of publication information; follow the name of the publisher with a comma; and list the date of publication at the end.Electronic source citations are similar to citations of published works except for two issues: You need to include the URL of the source, and a large percentage of online sources may not list an author.In APA style, for example, list an online source in the same way you would cite a book or article, except that you need to include the type of information you are accessing (in parentheses), as well as the URL.In any research paper, you draw on the work of other researchers and writers, and you must document their contributions by citing your sources, say Diana Hacker and Nancy Sommers in "A Pocket Style Manual, Eighth Edition." Citations, then, are the means by which you credit other researchers and writers when you use their work in your papers.Understanding how to cite sources can be tricky, particularly since there are different styles for writing papers, including the American Psychological Association, Modern Language Association, and Chicago (Turabian) styles."A Pocket Style Manual" gives this example: Though the citations here won't print this way, use a hanging indent for the second and any subsequent lines in each citation.In a hanging indent in APA style, you indent every line after the first.For Chicago style, use the same method as described previously but add the URL, as in this example: MLA style used to require you to list the date you accessed the information, but that's no longer the case.To cite an electronic source, use the same style as discussed previously, but replace the period after the date with a comma and then list the URL.

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