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machine scoring done by the same e-rater® engine as Criterion®) on holistic scores.She found nonsignificant and negligible effects of prompts and an interaction between prompts and rater types and a significant but small effect of rater types (partial η = 0.003, 0.001, and 0.030, respectively).
While these three perspectives are part of many types of validity evidence, providing them would be a step forward to a convincing validity argument (see Bachman & Palmer, ) examined effects of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) Internet-based test (i BT®) independent task prompts and rater types (human scoring vs.
While numerous articles on Criterion® have been published and its validity evidence has accumulated, test users need to obtain relevant validity evidence for their local context and develop their own validity argument.
This paper aims to provide validity evidence for the interpretation and use of Criterion® for assessing second language (L2) writing proficiency at a university in Japan.
We investigate this from three perspectives: (a) differences in Criterion® holistic scores due to prompts (prompt difficulty), (b) relationships between Criterion® holistic scores and indicators of L2 proficiency, and (c) longitudinal changes in Criterion® holistic and writing quality scores.
These areas are related to three types of inferences and are crucial in our context.