Essay About Urbanization

Essay About Urbanization-21
Contents: Urbanisation is one of the common characteristics of economic development.The proportion of urban population to total population which was only 11 per cent in 1911 slowly increased to 11.3 per cent in 1921 and then gradually rose to 14 per cent in 1941.

Contents: Urbanisation is one of the common characteristics of economic development.

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Accordingly, the total population of Class I towns also increased from 273 lakhs in 1951 to 943 lakh in 1981 showing an increase of nearly 245 per cent.

During the same period, the number of Class II towns has increased from 95 to 270 and that of Class III towns increased from 330 to 739 in 1981.

Therefore, urban areas have higher percentage of lower middle income, middle income, upper middle income and higher income group of people than that of rural areas. Thus it is found from Table 6.8 that the percentage of households in the lower middle income category was 34.75 per cent in urban areas as compared to that of 23.88 per cent in the rural areas.

Similarly, the percentage of households in the middle income and the upper middle income categories were 17.89 per cent and 6.46 per cent in the urban areas as compared to that of only 7.06 per cent and 1.16 per cent in the rural areas.

Measurement of the degree of urbanisation in a country like India is considered very important. As per the first simple method we observed that the total urban population in India in 1981 was a little less than one fourth of the total population in comparison to that of one-ninth in 1921 and one-sixth in 1951.

The second method, i.e., the urban-rural growth differential (URGD) method also revealed that the growth rates of both rural and urban population are very close to each other at present. The pace of urbanisation gradually declines only when the proportion of urban population to total population of the country becomes too high. The pace of urbanisation is fast if the industrial growth is fast.But in the remaining Class IV, Class V and Class VI towns together, the relative proportion of urban population concentration declined sharply from 47.2 per cent in 1901 to only 13.6 per cent in 1981.Besides continuation of urbanisation process, a number of Class II towns have been transformed into a Class I town and the number of Class I towns has thus increased from 74 in 1951 to 216 in 1981.But during the next three decades (1951-81), the absolute increase was to the extent of 94 million and this shows that the population absorption capacity in urban areas has increased substantially due to industrialisation in the country.The census data shows that the annual growth rate of urban population which was 3.26 per cent during 1961-71, gradually increased to 3.86 per cent during 1971-81. Due to social and economic pressures, people from backward villages started to move towards urbanised centres in search of job, where newly established industries and ancillary activities continuously offer job opportunities to those people migrating to cities. With the gradual growth of the economy, the process of urbanisation depends on the shift of surplus population from rural to urban areas along-with the growth of some industrialised urban centres.With a liberal definition of urban area adopted in 1951, the proportion of urban population suddenly rose to 17.6 per cent.But with a slightly strict definition, the proportion of urban population recorded a small increase to 18.3 per cent in 1961.

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