Behavior analysts also emphasize that the science of behavior must be a natural science as opposed to a social science. In 1968, Baer, Bijou, Risley, Birnbrauer, Wolf, and James Sherman joined the Department of Human Development and Family Life at the University of Kansas, where they founded the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.
Further information: Radical behaviorism, Experimental analysis of behavior, Behavior modification, Operant conditioning, B. Lovaas established the UCLA Young Autism Project while teaching at the University of California, Los Angeles, and devoted nearly half a century to groundbreaking research and practice aimed at improving the lives of children with autism and their families.
Lovaas’ work went on to be recognized by the US Surgeon General in 1999, and his research outcomes were replicated in university and private settings.
The "Lovaas Method" went on to become known as early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI), or DTT for 30 to 40 hours per week.
Punishment is a process by which a consequence immediately follows a behavior which decreases the future frequency of that behavior.
As with reinforcement, a stimulus can be added (positive punishment) or removed (negative punishment).ABA principles are used to motivate learning and reduce non-desired behaviors.The outcome of this study indicated 47% of the experimental group (9/19) went on to lose their autism diagnosis and were described as indistinguishable from their typical adolescent peers.Operant behavior is the so-called "voluntary" behavior that is sensitive to, or controlled by its consequences.Specifically, operant conditioning refers to the three-term contingency that uses stimulus control, in particular an antecedent contingency called the discriminative stimulus (SD) that influences the strengthening or weakening of behavior through such consequences as reinforcement or punishment.The behavior is then set to be extinguished (Cooper et al.).Extinction procedures are often preferred over punishment procedures, as many punishment procedures are deemed unethical and in many states prohibited.The name "applied behavior analysis" has replaced behavior modification because the latter approach suggested attempting to change behavior without clarifying the relevant behavior-environment interactions.In contrast, ABA tries to change behavior by first assessing the functional relationship between a targeted behavior and the environment.The experimental group in this study received up to 40-hours per week in a 1:1 teaching setting using errorless discrete trial training (DTT).The treatment is done at home with parents involved in every aspect of treatment, and the curriculum is highly individualized with a heavy emphasis on teaching eye contact and language.