The prizes were instituted by the final will of Alfred Nobel, a Swedish chemist, industrialist, and the inventor of dynamite.Tags: Essay On Recollection Of ChildhoodSmu Doctoral Dissertation CompetitionOil Research PaperEssay Argument StructureSmall Construction Company Business PlanPapers For Mac Student
During World War II, no prizes were awarded in any category from 1940 through 1942.
The selection of the peace prize in particular was greatly hampered by Nazi Germany's occupation of Norway.
It is said that his will was motivated in part by his reading of a premature obituary of himself, published in error by a French newspaper on the occasion of the death of Nobel's brother Ludvig, which condemned Alfred as a "merchant of death." After his death, Alfred left 94 percent of his worth to the establishment of five prizes: The whole of my remaining realizable estate shall be dealt with in the following way: The capital shall be invested by my executors in safe securities and shall constitute a fund, the interest on which shall be annually distributed in the form of prizes to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind.
The said interest shall be divided into five equal parts, which shall be apportioned as follows: one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery or invention within the field of physics; one part to the person who shall have made the most important chemical discovery or improvement; one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery within the domain of physiology or medicine; one part to the person who shall have produced in the field of literature the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency; and one part to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity among nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses.
Forms, which amount to a personal and exclusive invitation, are sent to about 3,000 selected individuals to invite them to submit nominations for noteworthy candidates.
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The strictly enforced submission deadline for nominations is January 31.
These include 817 Laureates and 23 organizations (since some individuals and organizations have been honored more than once, a total of 813 different individuals and 20 unique organizations have received awards).
A prize may be given to two works if they are both considered worthy of the prize.
The Nobel Prize is one of the most important awards that anyone can receive.
Nobel Prizes are given each year in six subject areas.