The anniversary of his birth (Yom-e-Viladat-e-Muhammed Iqbal, یوم ولادت محمد اقبال) on November 9 is a holiday in Pakistan.
His dynamic interpretation of Islam posited that no generation should be bound by the interpretations of previous generations but should be free to solve their own problems.
He was profoundly influenced by Western philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche, Henri Bergson and Goethe, and soon became a strong critic of Western society's separation of religion from state and what he perceived as its obsession with materialist pursuits.
He was especially influenced by Alfred North Whitehead, whom he frequently cited, adapting his process thought to interpret Islam in dynamic terms and to describe Muslims as always progressing towards 'ever-fresh illuminations from an Infinite Reality' that 'every moment appears in new glory' (1930: 123).
Iqbal was appointed to a readership in Arabic at the Oriental College in Lahore, publishing his first book in Urdu, The Knowledge of Economics in 1903.
In 1905 Iqbal published the patriotic song, Tarana-e-Hind (Song of India).Following custom, at the age of 15 Iqbal's family arranged for him to be married to Karim Bibi, the daughter of an affluent Gujarati physician.The couple had two children: a daughter, Mi'raj Begam (born 1895) and a son, Aftab (born 1899). The husband and wife were unhappy in their marriage and eventually divorced in 1916.He became active in the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam, a congress of Muslim intellectuals, writers and poets as well as politicians, and in 1919 became the general secretary of the organization.Iqbal's thoughts in his work primarily focused on the spiritual direction and development of human society, centered around experiences from his travel and stay in Western Europe and the Middle East.Iqbal was a strong proponent of the political and spiritual revival of Islamic civilization across the world, but specifically in India; a series of famous lectures he delivered to this effect were published as The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam.One of the most prominent leaders of the All India Muslim League, Iqbal encouraged the creation of a "state in northwestern India for Indian Muslims" in his 1930 presidential address.Upon his return to India in 1908, Iqbal took up assistant professorship at the Government College in Lahore, but for financial reasons he relinquished it within a year to practice law.During this period, Iqbal's personal life was in turmoil.Iqbal encouraged and worked closely with Muhammad Ali Jinnah, and he is known as Muffakir-e-Pakistan ("The Thinker of Pakistan"), Shair-i-Mashriq ("The Poet of the East"), and Hakeem-ul-Ummat ("The Sage of Ummah").He is officially recognised as the "national poet" in Pakistan.