Essay On Injustice Against Women

Essay On Injustice Against Women-27
For example, more than 80% of married 15 to 19 year-old women in Senegal, Niger, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon do not have the final say on their own healthcare.7 These inequalities are more severe for marginalised women, including female sex workers, transgender women, women who inject drugs, migrant women and women with disabilities who are also at a heightened risk of discrimination and violence.8 HIV disproportionately affects women and adolescent girls because of their unequal cultural, social and economic status in society.This means that gender inequality must be tackled in order to end the global HIV epidemic, and achieve other, broader development outcomes.9 Intimate partner violence, inequitable laws and harmful traditional practices reinforce unequal power dynamics between men and women.Women constitute more than half of all people living with HIV.1 AIDS-related illnesses remain the leading cause of death for women aged 30-49 and the third leading cause of death for women aged 15-29.2 Gender inequalities, including gender-based and intimate partner violence, exacerbate women and girls’ physiological vulnerability to HIV and block their access to HIV services.3HIV is not only driven by gender inequality, but it also entrenches gender inequality, leaving women more vulnerable to its impact.4 The gender inequalities in some regions result in an even starker difference between the way HIV affects men and women.

For example, more than 80% of married 15 to 19 year-old women in Senegal, Niger, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon do not have the final say on their own healthcare.7 These inequalities are more severe for marginalised women, including female sex workers, transgender women, women who inject drugs, migrant women and women with disabilities who are also at a heightened risk of discrimination and violence.8 HIV disproportionately affects women and adolescent girls because of their unequal cultural, social and economic status in society.This means that gender inequality must be tackled in order to end the global HIV epidemic, and achieve other, broader development outcomes.9 Intimate partner violence, inequitable laws and harmful traditional practices reinforce unequal power dynamics between men and women.Women constitute more than half of all people living with HIV.1 AIDS-related illnesses remain the leading cause of death for women aged 30-49 and the third leading cause of death for women aged 15-29.2 Gender inequalities, including gender-based and intimate partner violence, exacerbate women and girls’ physiological vulnerability to HIV and block their access to HIV services.3HIV is not only driven by gender inequality, but it also entrenches gender inequality, leaving women more vulnerable to its impact.4 The gender inequalities in some regions result in an even starker difference between the way HIV affects men and women.

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In the opening section, entitled `Neoliberalism and New Labour', Professor Robert Reiner of the London School of Economics argues in his essay that punitive and authoritarian crime control policies are a product of Labour's economic and social policies.

Given the extensive evidence of the relationship between income inequality and violent victimisation, he suggests that the more far reaching social policies that would address inequality are necessary for genuine progress.

However, such violence also reinforces and perpetuates gender inequality at both societal and relationship levels.30 Studies have shown that increasing educational achievement among women and girls is linked to better SRH outcomes, including lower rates of HIV infection, delayed childbearing, safer births and safer abortions.3132 In many settings, cultural and social norms mean that girls in families affected by HIV are the ones who drop out of school to care for sick parents or generate income for the family.33 Less than one in three girls in sub-Saharan Africa are enrolled in secondary school.34 The United Nations Children’s Fund estimates that 18.8 million children in West and Central Africa are not in school.

Girls are particularly disadvantaged: just over half (54%) of young women in the region are literate.35 The education and empowerment of women and girls is also fundamental to preventing intimate partner and gender-based violence.36 An analysis of data from 44 countries found that completing secondary education significantly reduces a woman’s risk of intimate partner violence and that a girl’s education is more strongly associated with reduced risk of partner violence in countries where spousal abuse is more common.37 However, in many places schools are not guaranteed safe learning environments for young women.

Girls who marry as children are more likely to be beaten or threatened by their husbands than girls who marry later, and are more likely to describe their first sexual experience as forced.

As minors, child brides are rarely able to assert their wishes, such as whether to practice safer sex.25 These factors all increase HIV risk.

The need for economic support may partly drive earlier marriage and existing gender inequalities may make it difficult for young women to insist on safer sexual practices.

The poorest women may have little choice but to adopt behaviours that put them at risk of infection, including transactional and intergenerational sex, earlier marriage, and relationships that expose them to violence and abuse.44 In many parts of rural Africa, food insufficiency can also drive the adoption of high-risk behaviours such as transactional sex.45 A 2015 study of young women in rural Zimbabwe found poorer women were more likely to have experienced earlier sexual debut; to have had more partners and partners who were six or more years older and to report having had sex for material or financial support.

The third section of the publication contains essays from key thinkers who have championed the `social harm' perspective as a preferable alternative to traditional notions of `crime'.

Section four examines questions of policing communities while the essays in section five considers the ways in which the actions of young people are currently regulated.

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