Essay On Petroleum

In ancient times, the Chinese, who encountered oil in drilling for salt in brine wells, used it as fuel to evaporate the brine.

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When the rocks originally formed under the sea, not only oil was trapped but also sea-water. Because oil is lighter than water it usually lies above it in the rock.

Above the oil are the lightest hydrocarbons forming natural gas.

Regions: The entire oil production of India so far comes from the Assam-Arakan belt, the Gujarat, Cambay belt and and the Bombay High offshore Zone.

The first one extends from the Dehang Basin in the extreme north-east of Assam along the outer flanks of the Hill ranges forming the eastern border of Bhitra and Surma valley to the Andaman Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal.

Being lighter than water they collect in the anticlines of fault traps above water surface.

Gas usually occurs above oil in most structures and a gas seepage, therefore, is taken as an indication of the occurrence of oil, although in many cases oil does not occur at such places. kms or about 42 per cent of the total area of the country is covered with sedimentary rocks, out of which about 10 lakh sq.Others think that oil may have formed relatively rapidly after the organisms were trapped in the sediments and that heat or pressure was not necessary to the process.Oil formation in sedimentary rocks has been going on since the beginning of geological time and is probably continuing today, and unlike many other minerals which require special conditions for their occurrence, oil can be found in many different rocks of various ages and is very widely distributed.Wherever there are areas of marine sedimentary rocks such as mudstone, shale, sandstone or limestone oil may be found in some of the strata.The oil is trapped in the pore-spaces of the rocks and thus, rocks such as sandstone with a high proportion of spaces are most likely to contain oil.The oil is found at the summits of anticlines or dome-like folds and is obtained by drilling through the overlying rocks to the summit of the fold.The degree of porosity of reservoir rocks plays an important part in the underground storage of petroleum.The second belt extends from Mahesana (Gujarat) in the north to the continental shelf offcast Ratnagiri (Maharashtra) in the south and includes the several important oilfields in Gujarat and the Bombay High and other newly discovered oilfields offshore.Againt a 63 per cent supply of primary commercial energy through hydrocarbons in the world in the case of India, it is 44.9 per cent (36% oil and 8.9% natural gas).kms form marine basins of Mesozoic and Tertiary times.India’s offshore areas have Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks of marine origin spread over 2.5 lakh km up to 200 metres,the probability of oil occurrences is rated high in these rocks (divided into 10 basins), particularly the Cambay region where oil was discovered in Bombay High in 1974.


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