) is the collection of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. machines) applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system's use, and then producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems.
Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic tools.
Not all technology enhances culture in a creative way; technology can also help facilitate political oppression and war via tools such as guns.
As a cultural activity, technology predates both science and engineering, each of which formalize some aspects of technological endeavor.
Technology is often a consequence of science and engineering, although technology as a human activity precedes the two fields.
For example, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by using already-existing tools and knowledge.Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment.Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions in the ethics of technology.Scientists and engineers usually prefer to define technology as applied science, rather than as the things that people make and use.More recently, scholars have borrowed from European philosophers of "technique" to extend the meaning of technology to various forms of instrumental reason, as in Foucault's work on technologies of the self (techniques de soi).An articulation of this philosophy could be found explicitly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science – The Endless Frontier: "New products, new industries, and more jobs require continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of nature ...This essential new knowledge can be obtained only through basic scientific research." In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to fund science for specific tasks (initiatives resisted by the scientific community).The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the later Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, and the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment.Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. It has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class.In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems.It is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator.