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148864 1 ‘A secure mother-child attachment during infancy is essential for healthy development’ Discuss. Effects of a secure attachment relationship on right brain development, affect regulation, and infant mental health.
In other words, sensitive parents will continue to be responsive towards their child with behaviours that less sensitive parents are unable to provide, as well as enduring a less responsive approach to parenting.
148864 2 A vast body of research is dedicated to understanding how early experiences have long lasting effects on the overall development of a child.
One of Bowlby’s key claims of an exclusive primary attachment to a mother figure was challenged by Schaffer and Emerson (1964).
They found that monotropy was not a reality in many families and that the infants had formed an attachment to their fathers during their second year.
However, upon return the infant seeks closeness and resists efforts made by the parent.
Insecure avoidant infants show no distress when the caregiver leaves and are indifferent upon their return. This is essential in their emotional development, especially extending into adolescence and adulthood (Vondra, Shaw, Swearingen, Cohen, & Owens, 2001). Furthermore, empirical evidence has demonstrated that the long-term effects of maternal deprivation is paramount. However, how do other infant attachment relationships relate to this observation? Although attachment theory eventually presented both parents as attachment figures, the father is considered a play companion and a secondary attachment figure rather than a principal attachment figure (Bowlby, 1982; Geiger, 1996). Attachment, exploration, and separation: Illustrated by the behavior of one-year-olds in a strange situation. Retreived from Bowlby, J., Fry, M., & Ainsworth, M. It would appear that children’s early security of attachment is somewhat predictive of their later psychological, social and cognitive functioning. For example, Bowlby (1973) suggests secure attachments are essential because they provide working models of positive relationships and the effects of this relationship endures over time. (1985) proposes attachment types only predict later child development if their environment remains consistent. According to Bowlby (1950), an individual’s attachment classification forms the basis of an internal working model and determines how an individual views the world and develops their views on parenting, and therefore, how they respond to their own child. For example, parents who are securely attached as infants may be more sensitive and responsive to the needs of their child due to their own early experiences (Benoit & Parker, 1994.) On the basis of such observations, it is believed that securely attached infants are more socially adept and and well adjusted as they begin to grow up. This was supported by Bowlby’s (1944) own study, 16/44 thieves had been diagnosed with affectionless psychopathy (a behvaioural disorder where individuals have a lack of self conscience, guilt and shame) and 86% of these individuals had experienced prolonged separation from their mother in early years. The international journal of psycho-analysis, 25, 19. Compared to the remaining thieves, where 17% had experienced separation from their mother in early infancy and less than 4% of children in the non-thief category had experience separation. Bowlby, J., Ainsworth, M., Boston, M., & Rosenbluth, D. The effects of mother‐child separation: a follow‐up study.