In some areas of psychology, the titles of many empirical research reports are informal in a way that is perhaps best described as “cute.” They usually take the form of a play on words or a well-known expression that relates to the topic under study.Here are some examples from recent issues of the Journal Psychological Science.In this section, we look at how to write an APA-style empirical research report, an article that presents the results of one or more new studies.
The introduction includes three distinct subsections, although these are typically not identified by separate headings.
The opening introduces the research question and explains why it is interesting, the literature review discusses relevant previous research, and the closing restates the research question and comments on the method used to answer it.
191) The following would be much better: The individual who holds two beliefs that are inconsistent with one another may feel uncomfortable. Giving readers a clear sense of what the research is about and why they should care about it will motivate them to continue reading the literature review—and will help them make sense of it.
For example, the person who knows that he or she enjoys smoking but believes it to be unhealthy may experience discomfort arising from the inconsistency or disharmony between these two thoughts or cognitions. Breaking the Rules Researcher Larry Jacoby reported several studies showing that a word that people see or hear repeatedly can seem more familiar even when they do not recall the repetitions—and that this tendency is especially pronounced among older adults.
For student papers that are not being submitted for publication—including theses—author notes are generally not necessary. It is the second page of the manuscript and is headed with the word Abstract. The abstract presents the research question, a summary of the method, the basic results, and the most important conclusions.
Because the abstract is usually limited to about 200 words, it can be a challenge to write a good one.Like any effective argument, the literature review must have some kind of structure.For example, it might begin by describing a phenomenon in a general way along with several studies that demonstrate it, then describing two or more competing theories of the phenomenon, and finally presenting a hypothesis to test one or more of the theories.The dining room was described as similar to a fine restaurant except that tipping was not required.The absence of tipping was a central theme in the orientation lecture, mentioned frequently to emphasize the quality of care along with the advantages of having paid in advance.The opening, which is usually a paragraph or two in length, introduces the research question and explains why it is interesting.To capture the reader’s attention, researcher Daryl Bem recommends starting with general observations about the topic under study, expressed in ordinary language (not technical jargon)—observations that are about people and their behaviour (not about researchers or their research; Bem, 2003). According to Bem, this would be a poor way to begin a research report: Festinger’s theory of cognitive dissonance received a great deal of attention during the latter part of the 20th century (p.Instead, it constitutes a kind of argument for why the research question is worth addressing.By the end of the literature review, readers should be convinced that the research question makes sense and that the present study is a logical next step in the ongoing research process.This feeling of discomfort was called cognitive dissonance by social psychologist Leon Festinger (1957), who suggested that individuals will be motivated to remove this dissonance in whatever way they can (p. After capturing the reader’s attention, the opening should go on to introduce the research question and explain why it is interesting. He opened his article with the following humourous anecdote: A friend whose mother is suffering symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) tells the story of taking her mother to visit a nursing home, preliminary to her mother’s moving there.During an orientation meeting at the nursing home, the rules and regulations were explained, one of which regarded the dining room.