The FBI further enhanced its role as a point of information exchange in 1992, when it established CJIS, which consolidated a number of functions, including NCIC.
After 9/11 federal and sub-federal authorities made a concerted effort to prevent breakdowns in exchange of information, which terrorists could exploit to operate undetected.
As part of its creation, DHS absorbed certain FBI functions, including the National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC).
The NIPC came into existence, under the auspices of the Bureau in 1998, as a result of Presidential Decision Directive 63, which defined the NIPC as the focal point for, among other things, federal threat assessment and response coordination on cyber issues.
In 1924, the FBI established its Identification Division as the national repository and clearinghouse for fingerprint records.
The Bureau’s role in law enforcement information sharing expanded in 1967 with the introduction of the National Crime Information Center (NCIC).
By 2016, consistent with the trend of retrenchment, the Bureau reportedly had little permanent presence at fusion centers.
This realignment of both the formal and responsibilities suggests that the FBI and DHS warrant new scrutiny to ensure that elements they contain are germane to their respective responsibilities and optimize each agency’s comparative advantage.
In March 2003, as a result of the Homeland Security Act of 2002, the NIPC was transferred to DHS.
This move illustrated that the institutional makeup of the FBI was not sacrosanct and that its components could be redistributed in order to enhance national security.