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Successful development of the needed models will require the sustained application of resources both to the infrastructure supporting human behavior representation and to the development of the models themselves.
Two other key citizenship concepts, relational ties and citizen rights, are described, and a set of ten research propositions is offered relating the citizenship concepts to one another.
Suggestions for other areas of investigation are also provided.
Together, as illustrated in Figure 13.1, these initiatives constitute a program plan for human behavior representation development for many years to come.
Work on achieving these short-, intermediate-, and long-term goals should begin concurrently.
The panel recommends that these efforts proceed in accordance with four themes, listed below in order of priority and discussed in more detail in the following subsections: As indicated on the left of Figure 13.1, the panel has concluded that all levels of model development depend on the sustained collection and dissemination of human behavior data.
Figure 13.2 expands on this requirement by elaborating the range of data collection needs, which extend from real-world field data to laboratory studies of basic human capacities.Some of these data, such as communication logs from old war games, already exist; however, they need to be categorized, indexed, and made generally available.Individual model and theory builders should be able to find out what data exist and obtain access to specific data on request.Between these extremes there is a need for data derived from high-fidelity simulations and war games and for data from laboratory analogs to military tasks.Examples of high-fidelity data of value to the modeler are communication logs and mission scenarios.This article advocates a more comprehensive understanding of job performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) than that employed by earlier researchers on those topics.Using the intellectual heritage of the word “citizenship” from political philosophy and related disciplines, OCB is positioned as the organizational equivalent of citizen responsibilities, of which there are three categories: obedience, loyalty, and political participation.The panel has observed very little quality control among the models that are used in military simulations today.Just as there is a need for accreditation of constructive models that are to be used in training and doctrine development, there is a need for accreditation of models of human and organizational behavior.Examples of salient field research are studies of the effects of fatigue on troop movement speeds and the gathering of quantitative data on the communication patterns within and across echelons in typical joint task force command and control exercises.Examples of laboratory work that has importance for real-world contexts are studies of the orientation of behavior to coordinated acoustic and visual stimuli and studies of the relationship between risk taking and information uncertainty.