Tags: English Literature And Creative Writing DegreeGender Re Assignment SurgeryResearch Paper On Employee TurnoverEssay On Disadvantages Of Cell PhonesA Day I Will Always Remember EssayEssay Using Handphone In SchoolCv And Cover Letter Help UkGcse English Coursework Frankenstein
Archaeology is demolishing the belief that human history over the past million years has been a long tale of progress.
“Tuberculosis and diarrheal disease had to await the rise of farming, measles and bubonic plague the appearance of large cities.” How agriculture destroyed egalitarianism “Besides malnutrition, starvation, and epidemic infectious disease, farming helped bring another curse upon humanity: deep class divisions,” Diamond said.
Native American skeletons from the Ohio and Illinois river valleys demonstrate major health changes that occurred when the gatherer-hunter population there gave way to agriculture around 1150 AD – “a nearly 50 percent increase in enamel defects indicative of malnutrition, a fourfold increase in iron-deficiency anemia, a threefold rise in bone lesions reflecting infectious disease in general, and an increase in degenerative conditions of the spine, probably reflecting a lot of hard physical labor.” Life expectancy at birth in that pre-agricultural community was only about twenty-six years, but in the post-agricultural community it was nineteen years, said George Armelagos of the University of Massachusetts.
(Some anthropologists argue that gatherer-hunter life-expectancy averages are thrown off by high infant mortality due to infanticide – which was one way of keeping population in balance with the food supply – but that the life-expectancy of those who made it past infancy was at least equal to ours, even without the benefit of modern medicine.) Agriculture was bad move for human health for three main reasons: 1.
How the people of Easter Island wiped out their forest, drove their plants and animals to extinction, and saw their complex society spiral into chaos and cannibalism.
Some written languages are a precise reflection of speech, while others, like english, are a complete mess.