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To anticipate future problems, Seltzer emphasized that not only are some variables inevitably theoretically ambiguous (a low-wage worker may rationally support or oppose minimum wage increases depending on whether job loss is expected), but also the coefficients on some variables must be interpreted cautiously. For example, should the coefficient for a variable measuring teen workers in the labor force be interpreted as their demand for higher wages, or does the coefficient better reflect the demands of well-organized firms that disproportionally hire younger workers? S., Canada presents a better opportunity to study variations in minimum wages across jurisdictions and time, so it is perhaps surprising that the only study, to our knowledge, that examines Canadian minimum wage determination is Blais et al. They related the minimum wage, measured as the minimum wage divided by the average manufacturing wage, to the percentages of union workers, women, and 15 to 19-year-olds in the labor force, the current year unemployment rate, the inflation rate, the percentage of employment in small firms (less than 20 employees), and a "convergence" variable that measures average manufacturing wages in a province divided by average wages in Canada. "Capture and Ideology in the Economic Theory of Politics." American Economic Review 74 (June 1984): 279-300. Using variables for each congressional district, they found larger political contributions by unions and larger proportions of low-income families increased the probability of an affirmative vote, while larger campaign contributions from small business and larger proportions of teen-age workers reduced the probability. "Raising Rivals Costs." American Economic Review 73 (May 1983): 267-71. "The Political Economy of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938." Journal of Political Economy 103 (December 1996): 1302-42.
NOTE: A literature review and an annotated bibliography are not synonymous.
If you are asked to write an annotated bibliography, you should consult the for the APA Format for Annotated Bibliographies.
In many of the social sciences, you will be asked to design and conduct your own experimental research.
If so, you will need to write up your paper using a structure that is more complex than that used for just a literature review.
Often student research in APA fields falls into this category.
Your professor might ask you to write this kind of paper to demonstrate your familiarity with work in the field pertinent to the research you hope to conduct.
We have a complete resource devoted to writing an experimental report in the field of psychology here.
This structure follows the scientific method, but it also makes your paper easier to follow by providing those familiar cues that help your reader efficiently scan your information for: Make sure to check the guidelines for your assignment or any guidelines that have been given to you by an editor of a journal before you submit a manuscript containing the sections listed above.
This renewed interest in how minimum wages affect employment leads naturally to another question: What factors determine the minimum wage? the minimum wage is legislated at the federal rather than at the state level of government.
Despite the ubiquity of minimum wage legislation, this question has received surprisingly little attention. Since this federal wage changes only occasionally, most U. studies have been limited to cross-sectional studies that focus on how the characteristics of the states, and the party affiliation of legislators, influence the vote on proposed changes in the federal minimum wage (Silberman and Durbin, 1970; Kau and Rubin, 1978; Bloch, 1980; Seltzer, 1995). However, as pointed out by Baker et al. studies have usually been cross sectional and have examined what variables influenced congressional voting for increases in the federal minimum wage. For example, Bloch (1993) related state wage levels and proportions of unionized employees to votes by senators to amend the 19 Federal Labor Standards Act and thereby increase the minimum wage.