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In fact, responsibility is a burden which most of us do not carry well, which most of us are not willing to accept.But leadership means that decisions must be made and responsibility accepted.
Of all the problems in management, the problem of decision-making is the most difficult.
Even in ordinary life, ‘to do or not to do’ is one of the most important riddles that an individual faces before leaping to action.
Informed decision-making is an important aspect for working in the government.
According to Milakovich and Gordon, provide some examples of how information technology can be used to assist bureaucrats in decision-making?
During President Bush’ election he used certain failures of the past administration to enhance his win to presidency as the public trust in the If decision makers postpone making decisions because there is a need for additional information then this could reduce the risk of making mistakes.
Therefore, accurate information is needed to make decisions that are supportable both objectively and politically (p.205).In the words of Seckler-Hudson, “decision-making in government is a plural activity.One individual may pronounce the decision, but many contribute to the process of reaching the decision.Others prefer to avoid clear-cut choices, to temporize, to postpone, to hope that somehow, some way circumstances will intervene to make a choice unnecessary.We do not know now why there should be these differences among individuals or how extensive such differences may be.”Perhaps, these differences among individuals are the result of social and professional environment in which they are nurtured.The depth and quality of knowledge used by policy makers can influence the effectiveness of policies.According to Milakovich and Gordon, competitive political forces constantly push elected representatives to focus on immediate political decisions, rather than on long term professional-administrative values such as efficient use of resources and increased productivity (p.431).In business we need quick and speedy decisions; in Public administration we need right decisions.Effective management whether of private or public organization means, in the ultimate analysis, making right and responsible decisions.Decision-making depends upon the availability of facts and the necessary data.“The careful accumulation of detailed facts, their analysis and interpretation, the use of broad concept of human and physical behaviour to predict future developments—all these elements in the use of knowledge enter into decision-making in varying degree”.