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Among the important photographers of this generation were Shōmei Tomatsu, who made vivid images on the streets of Tokyo; Eikō Hosoe, who captured imagery evoking human sensuality; and Hiroshi Sugimoto, who was entranced by images conveying stillness and emptiness.For a period the government in China exerted control over photographic imagery, but by the late 20th century photographers had found some freedoms.Working in black and white, Swiss-born photographer Claudia Andujar (working in Brazil) and Mexican photographer Graciela Iturbide portrayed indigenous peoples—groups they believed were becoming marginalized by society—and their customs.
The resulting photographs created an extensive and compelling documentation of his country’s people.
In the same period, influenced by the mordant eye of the earlier Austrian émigré photographer Lisette Model, Diane Arbus created challenging portraits of people living outside prescribed ideas of “normalcy,” such as transvestites and the intellectually disabled.
Such efforts had various labels, including “social landscape.” Inspired by Swiss-born émigré Bruce Davidson, Lee Friedlander, and William Klein were among those whose work suggested the effects of contemporary culture on people in industrialized societies.
Often utilizing 35-mm cameras, these photographers caught seeming mundane everyday moments in works that resembled snapshots.
Such direct, unflinching photographs established intimate documentary work as an important genre in the late 20th century.
Photographers such as Sally Mann and Tina Barney extended this genre to portray intimate, sometimes unsettling images of their own families.
For his ability to make world events come pictorially alive, American James Nachtwey was three times the winner of the International Center of Photography’s photojournalism awards.
By the end of the century, the technology used by these photojournalists had changed.
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