Modernization And Westernization Essay

Modernization And Westernization Essay-36
This separation has taken place first, and perhaps most dramatically, between family and economic occupational roles during the industrial revolution, as has been so fully described by Marx in his studies of the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the industrial system, by Tönnies in his classical studies of “Community and Society,” and by Simmel in his studies of urban life.Such separation of roles meant, first, that the occupation of any given role within one institutional sphere – e.g., the occupational sphere – does not automatically entail the incumbency of a particular role in the political or cultural spheres.

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The specialized roles are “free-floating” (i.e., admission to them is not de­ termined by ascribed properties of the individual); similarly wealth and power are not ascriptively allocated – at least not as much as in nonmodern societies.Karl Deutsch has coined the term “social mobilization” to denote most of the socio-demographic aspects of modernization.He has defined social mobilization as “the process in which major clusters of old social, economic and psychological commitments are eroded and broken and people become available for new patterns of socialization and behavior,” and has indicated that some of its main indices are exposure to aspects of modern life through demonstrations of machinery, buildings, consumers' goods, etc.; response to mass media; change of residence; urbanization; change from agricultural occupations; literacy; growth of per capita income, etc.Asia, Africa, and Latin America have all been influenced by the transmission of Western cultural values through direct as well as indirect contact.By means of colonization Asia, Africa and Latin America were particularly affected as Western values were enforced upon the populations by colonial assault.And yet beyond these variations there are also developed many common characteristics which constitute perhaps the major core of “modernization“ of a modern society, and it would be worth while to analyze these characteristics.SOCIAL MOBILIZATION AND SOCIAL DIFFERENTIATIONThe common characteristics of modernization refer both to what may be called socio-demographic aspects of societies and to structural aspects of social organization.This is associated with institutions like markets in economic life, voting and party activities in politics, and instrumentally recruited bureaucratic organizations and mechanisms in most institutional spheres.Perhaps the most important aspects of this differentiation and specialization of roles in all the major institutional spheres is the separation between the different roles held by an individual – especially among the occupational and political roles, and between them and the family and kinship roles.In Latin America more fragmentarily modern structures developed from oligarchic conquest-colonial societies, in which there existed strong division between the white conquering oligarchy and the indigenous subject population.In Japan the modernization process developed from a centralized feudal state of somewhat unique characteristics and in China from the breakdown of the most continuous Imperial system in the history of mankind, a system based on special types of “literati-bureaucratic” institutions.

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