New Imperialism In Europe Essay

New Imperialism In Europe Essay-41
However, the extent to which European imperialism was responsible for the outbreak of World War I is both an open and a controversial question.In broaching this issue, this article aims not to give an overview of the history of imperialism and colonialism, but rather to focus on the aspects that might have worsened the relations between the Great Powers and have led to the Great War.

However, the extent to which European imperialism was responsible for the outbreak of World War I is both an open and a controversial question.In broaching this issue, this article aims not to give an overview of the history of imperialism and colonialism, but rather to focus on the aspects that might have worsened the relations between the Great Powers and have led to the Great War.

In most of the imperial powers (Britain, France, Germany, and Italy), elites with different backgrounds were convinced that only expanding countries with colonies or informal spheres of influence would be able to survive in the future.

It was taken for granted that hierarchies of civilizations existed, with the industrialized European countries and the United States at the top.

In 1900 during the Boxer Rebellion in China all imperial competition was suspended.

Faced with an extra-European enemy the imperial powers united in an unprecedented fashion and dispatched an army that suppressed the rebellion.

The only non-white exception was Japan, which managed to become a “civilized” and militarized state due to the Meiji Reform after 1868.

Despite the competition between the powers, in major conflicts Europeans could still count on “white” solidarity.After its victory in the Spanish-American War, the United States conquered a colonial empire of its own in East Asia (the Philippines), occupied Hawaii, and established an informal zone of influence in the Caribbean.The enormous progress in communications (railways, trans-oceanic telegraph lines, steamships), the second industrial revolution (steel, electricity, energy, chemistry), and technical progress in weapon technologies (modern artillery, Maxim-guns or machine guns) had enabled Europeans and North Americans to occupy and control territories and states which were either unknown (the African interior) or even perceived to be culturally superior (like China) some decades before the First World War.This article focuses on the extent to which imperialism contributed to the outbreak of the First World War.The first part describes the emergence of specific imperialist cultures and attitudes in Europe.Even if imperialism was one of the crucial factors that led to the Great War, by 1914 nearly all colonial disputes between Germany and Britain had been solved.Most textbooks agree that the imperialist tensions in the two decades before 1914 contributed to the diplomatic constellation of the July Crisis.The article distinguishes between several levels of analysis.The first part deals with European imperialist cultures and attitudes before the First World War; the second part takes a deeper look at economic and financial imperialism, focusing on Anglo-German relations, which were crucial in the pre-war era; and the third part analyzes the diplomacy of the European Great Powers with reference to imperialist concepts and ideas.With the founding of Germany and Italy, two rather aggressive and aspiring new powers appeared on the scene.After the turn of the century, two non-European states – Japan and the United States – also became imperial powers.

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