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Interdiffusion refers to the migration of these molecules, usually polymers, from one fiber into the other.Interdiffusion is believed to be a key mechanism of fiber-fiber bonding.This creates contact due to plastic, viscoelastic, and elastic deformation of the fiber surfaces.
Currently, the majority of industrial pulp fibers are manufactured from wood.
The process of papermaking has remained basically intact since its beginning.
The fiber surfaces, consisting of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin in varying compositions, form stable bonds thus creating a composite material with remarkable strength per square meter.
The salient feature of papermaking is that the fibers bond to each other without any glue or adhesive material added to the suspension.
This study characterizes bond formation between pulp fibers leading to insight that could be potentially used to optimize the papermaking process, while reducing energy and wood consumption.
Paper is a composite material that has been used for a long time.For a given sheet, one of these two is the factor limiting the material strength, as described by the Page equation, e.g.by densification of the paper, the bond strength is improved via the specific bond strength, i.e. In this study, we only use specific bond strength given in bond energy per unit area.The process of papermaking requires substantial amounts of energy and wood consumption, which contributes to larger environmental costs.In order to optimize the production of papermaking to suit its many applications in material science and engineering, a quantitative understanding of bonding forces between the individual pulp fibers is of importance.Several publications have been addressing qualitative and sometimes quantitative analysis of individual bonding mechanisms.To our knowledge there is no publication quantifying all bonding mechanisms.Here we show the first approach to quantify the bonding energies contributed by the individual bonding mechanisms.We calculated the impact of the following mechanisms necessary for paper formation: mechanical interlocking, interdiffusion, capillary bridges, hydrogen bonding, Van der Waals forces, and Coulomb forces on the bonding energy.Experimental results quantify the area in molecular contact necessary for bonding.Atomic force microscopy experiments derive the impact of mechanical interlocking. A model based on the crystal structure of cellulose leads to values for the chemical bonds.