With those dimensions in place, we can construct the following grid.
The grid captures all the possible forms of euthanasia.
If the primary cause of death is human action, then we have a case of active euthanasia.
And if the primary cause of death is disease or injury, then we have a case of passive euthanasia.
An instance of euthanasia is non-voluntary if the person who is euthanised does not have the capacity to communicate their desires (e.g. And finally, an instance of euthanasia is involuntary if the person is euthanised against their will.
The second dimension captures the distinction between passive and active forms of euthanasia.
Unfortunately, the interplay between the essays isn’t perfect and, as per usual, the authors occasionally talk past one another.
Still, the standard of discussion is high and it makes for rewarding reading.
One of the nice features of this approach is that it tends to make for a logically strong argument.
Tooley tends to build his case in a series a fairly uncontroversial stages, and these stages tend not to rely on implicit premises — as is often the case in arguments of this sort.