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ITT posits that outgroup prejudice and discrimination is caused when individuals perceive an outgroup to be threatening in some way.ITT defines four threats: Realistic threats are tangible, such as competition for a natural resource or a threat to income.
Retirement Plans For Small Business Owners - Prejudice And Discrimination Essay
The justification-suppression model of prejudice was created by Christian Crandall and Amy Eshleman.The realistic conflict theory states that competition between limited resources leads to increased negative prejudices and discrimination.This can be seen even when the resource is insignificant.Students at each school were shown videos of other students from each school choosing a type of music to listen to for an auditory perception study.Then the participants were asked to guess what percentage of the videotaped students' classmates would choose the same.The out-group homogeneity effect is the perception that members of an out-group are more similar (homogenous) than members of the in-group.Social psychologists Quattrone and Jones conducted a study demonstrating this with students from the rival schools Princeton University and Rutgers University.Allport claimed that prejudice is a natural and normal process for humans.According to him, "The human mind must think with the aid of categories…The ultimate attribution error occurs when ingroup members "(1) attribute negative outgroup behavior to dispositional causes (more than they would for identical ingroup behavior), and (2) attribute positive outgroup behavior to one or more of the following causes: (a) a fluke or exceptional case, (b) luck or special advantage, (c) high motivation and effort, and (d) situational factors." Youeng-Bruehl (1996) argued that prejudice cannot be treated in the singular; one should rather speak of different prejudices as characteristic of different character types.Her theory defines prejudices as being social defences, distinguishing between an obsessional character structure, primarily linked with anti-semitism, hysterical characters, primarily associated with racism, and narcissistic characters, linked with sexism.