Once the embryo is approximately five days old, the stem cells are removed, cultured, differentiated to the desired type of body cell, and inserted back into the patient (the genetic donor in this case).Since the embryo was a genetic duplicate of the patient, there would be no immunological rejection.One current obstacle for the successful use of embryonic stem cells for disease therapy concerns immunological rejection.Tags: Essayer De Ne Pas Rire En AnglaisEssay Writing In UrduCritical And Logical ThinkingCompare Two Famous People EssayApa Format Essay ExamplesHow To Establish A Business PlanPictures For Essay Writing
When scientists wish to replicate a specific gene to facilitate more thorough study, molecular cloning is implemented in order to generate multiple copies of the DNA fragment of interest.
In this process, the specific DNA fragment is transferred from one organism into a self-replicating genetic element, e.g., a bacterial plasmid (Allison, 2007).
Although some ethicists are in favor of using surplus embryos from fertility treatments for research (since the embryos were slated for destruction in any case), they are simultaneously against creating embryos solely for research due to the concern that doing so treats the embryos purely as means (Outka, 2002; Peters, 2001).
Indeed, it is precisely because of these ethical issues that some individuals object to the positive connotations of the term “therapeutic” and refer to this work, instead, as “research cloning.” The term “therapeutic cloning” is, however, more widely used. Unlike therapeutic cloning, the cloned embryo is transferred into a uterus of a female of the same species and would be, upon successful implantation, allowed to gestate as a naturally fertilized egg would.
The tissue could be experimented upon to understand why disease occurs.
It could be used to understand the genetic contribution to disease and to test vast arrays of new drugs which could not be tested in human people” (Savulescu, 2007, 1-2).
Pluripotent stem cells can also be used to test drug toxicity which could also diminish the chances of drug-related birth defects (Boiani and Schöler, 2002, 124).
Therapeutic cloning is controversial because isolating the stem cells from the embryo destroys it.
The main area of concentration is the moral dimensions of reproductive cloning, specifically the use of cloning in order to procreate.
The article summarizes the different types of cloning, such as recombinant DNA/molecular cloning, therapeutic cloning, and reproductive cloning.