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These tools are selected according to the needs of the task and are either divergent (i.e., used to generate options) or convergent (i.e., used to evaluate options)." People solve problems (to "make it better") in all areas of life.When we're solving a wide variety of problems, we can think productively in a variety of ways, as described in a theory of MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES developed by Howard Gardner.
while solving problems, by combining creative thinking (to generate ideas) and critical thinking (to evaluate ideas).
Both modes of thinking are essential for a well-rounded productive thinker, according to experts in both fields: Richard Paul (a prominent advocate of ) says, "Alternative solutions are often not given, they must be generated or thought-up.
Science Buddies has Steps of the Scientific Method with a flowchart showing options for flexibility of timing.
They say, "Even though we show the scientific method as a series of steps, keep in mind that new information or thinking might cause a scientist to back up and repeat steps at any point during the process.
They compare these models to show their similarities & differences.
And they explain how both models describe a flexible process even though each model-framework has steps.
/ Later, I developed a model for the basic logic-and-actions of ) to describe creative-and-critical thinking strategies that are similar to Engineering Design Process, and are used in a wider range of life — for all problem-solving situations (and these include almost everything we do in life) — not just for engineering.
Science and Design: Science Buddies has separate models for Scientific Method (with a flowchart showing options for flexibility-of-timing when using "Steps of the Scientific Method") and for Engineering Design Process.
Visual Logic: We can think logically in a variety of ways; useful tools for VISUAL THINKING include visually logical organizing techniques — concept maps, matrices and diagrams (cluster, hierarchical, webbing, Venn,...), flowcharts,...
— YES, because expert scientists (and designers) tend to be more effective when they use flexible strategies — analogous to the flexible goal-directed improvising of a hockey player, but not the rigid choreography of a figure skater — to stimulate & coordinate their thinking-and-actions in productive ways, so they can solve problems more effectively.