When using sources in your papers, you can avoid plagiarism by knowing what must be documented.
If you use an author’s specific word or words, you must place those words within quotation marks and you must credit the source.
For instance, you may not need to cite a reference to Piaget’s developmental stages in a paper for an education class or give a source for your description of a commonly used method in a biology report—but you must be sure that this information is so widely known within that field that it will be shared by your readers. And in the case of both general and field-specific common knowledge, if you use the exact words of the reference source, you must use quotation marks and credit the source.
In general, use direct quotations only if you have a good reason. Also, it’s often conventional to quote more extensively from sources when you’re writing a humanities paper, and to summarize from sources when you’re writing in the social or natural sciences–but there are always exceptions.
Just as the educational experts described above do not directly teach students, the experts in this unit do not directly attend to patients.
That is the role of the staff nurses, who, like teachers, have their own “hierarchy of seniority” (p. The roles of the experts include employing unit nurses and overseeing the care of special patients (nurse manager), teaching and otherwise integrating new personnel into the unit (clinical nurse specialist and nurse clinician), and policy-making (nurse clinician).
This person oversees the hour-by-hour functioning of the unit as a whole, such as considering expected admissions and discharges of patients, ascertaining that beds are available for patients in the operating room, and covering sick calls. They are the most experienced of all the staff nurses. And if quotation marks did appear around all these phrases, this paragraph would be so cluttered that it would be unreadable.
The nurse clinician has a separate job description and provides for quality of care by orienting new staff, developing unit policies, and providing direct support where needed, such as assisting in emergency situations. at the top and the least senior staff nurses at the bottom.
The paragraphs below provide an example by showing a passage as it appears in the source, two paraphrases that follow the source too closely, and a legitimate paraphrase.
The student’s intention was to incorporate the material in the original passage into a section of a paper on the concept of “experts” that compared the functions of experts and nonexperts in several professions.