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Keywords: Use of religion for war, use of religion for peace | Peace according Islam | | To analyse conflicts from a cultural point of view | India | Pakistan Both religion and politics have one common goal: that is to acquire political power and use it to fulfill their aims.However, to achieve this object, their methods are different.This is the reason why in some societies religion is separated from politics and economics and it no more enjoys the domination over the society, which it did in the medieval period.
The Iranian bureaucracy was opposed by ulema who strove to curtail the power of the caliph in view of the shariat (religious laws).
As the Iranians had political and military support, they cornered ulema in their efforts and made the caliph a Persian king along with all royal symbols and rituals which once prevailed at the Sassanid court.
On the other hand, rulers also adopted a policy of conciliation toward then.
They showed outward respect to them; invited them to their court to deliver sermons and ask for their advice on important issues.
However, whenever, they wanted to use these ulema for their political interest; they asked them to issue fatwa in their favour, which they obliged with pleasure.
We find that how these ulema religiously justified the Persian court ceremonies of prostration before the ruler, kissing his feet or hands and address him with high-sounding titles.Religion mobilizes religious sensibilities of people in order to get their support to capture power; while politics uses intrigue, diplomacy, and makes attempt to win public opinion either democratically, if the system allows it, or usurps power with the help of army, if the society is under-developed and backward.Therefore, in power struggle, both politics and religion make attempts to undermine each other.In these capacities they became servants of the state and as such their responsibility was to obey ruler and state and interpret shariat according to the interest of the caliph.Once the economic interest of the ulema were linked to the state as they received either stipends or jagir (fief) from the state, their main concern was to please the ruler.Politics, on the contrary, bereft of any value, directs its policy on the needs and requirements of society whereupon, it obliges to change laws and system of government accordingly.This is a basic difference between two approaches of religion and politics: In its secular approach man is responsible to determine his destiny.He is not under the control of divinity to remain submissive and inactive.On the contrary, he is supposed to initiate and plan to build a society according to his vision.Especially, with the extension of knowledge, politics, economics, sciences, technology and other branches of knowledge assume a separate entity that could be specialized and handled by professionals.Ulema or religious scholars are not in a position to understand intricacies of these professions and adjust them with religious teachings.