Research Paper About Breast Cancer

Komen for the Cure funds research on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer, and also provides educational information and support services for the public and health care providers. The Statement of Task for the IOM study appears in Box 1-1. At present, a large but incomplete body of evidence is available on the relationship between breast cancer and the wide variety of external factors that can be said to comprise the environment.

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This report presents the results of a study commissioned to review the current evidence on environmental risk factors for breast cancer, consider gene–environment interactions in breast cancer, explore evidence-based actions that might reduce the risk of breast cancer, and recommend research in these areas. Breast cancer remains the most common invasive cancer among women (aside from nonmelanoma skin cancers), accounting in 2011 for an estimated 230,480 new cases among women in the United States and another 2,140 new cases among men (ACS, 2011). Chemicals causing mammary gland tumors in animals signal new directions for epidemiology, chemicals testing, and risk assessment for breast cancer prevention. WCRF/AICR (World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research). Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: A global perspective. Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: Principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. After lung cancer, it is the second most common cause of mortality from cancer for women, with about 39,520 deaths expected in the United States in 2011. The committee met in person five times from April 2010 through February 2011 and conducted additional deliberations by conference call. During these meetings and calls, the committee reviewed and discussed the existing research literature on the topics central to its charge and developed and revised this report. For example, the publication of findings from the Women’s Health Initiative (Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators, 2002) confirming earlier indications that estrogen–progestin HT was contributing to an increase in the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer was followed by a rapid reduction in use of HT and in the incidence of invasive breast cancer. As reflected in NCI data, the incidence in 2002 was 136 cases per 100,000 women, compared with 127 in 2003 (NCI, 2011). In contrast, knowledge of the complexity of breast cancer is growing, with the characterization of multiple tumor subtypes; the possibility _________________ Loeb and Nishimura (2010, p. 4270) note that each normal cell in a person’s body may be exposed to as many as 50,000 DNA-damaging events each day, and that oxygen free radicals are a major source of DNA damage. Another 450 breast cancer deaths are expected among men in 2011 (ACS, 2011). Since the mid-1970s, when the National Cancer Institute (NCI) began compiling continuous cancer statistics, the annual incidence of invasive breast cancer rose from 105 cases per 100,000 women to 142 per 100,000 women in 1999 (NCI, 2011). In 2008, the incidence of breast cancer was 129 cases per 100,000 women.


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