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Should the damage warrant it, the local authorities can take control of the initial intervention (first aid) by co-ordinating the action of the means available (police, fire brigade, civil defence, health services) in close collaboration with the specialist services of the company involved.
Subsequently, the rescue plan or red alert for rail disasters can be activated by higher political authorities.
Protection, research, rescue and assistance measures will depend upon the intervention tactics dictated by the accident and the means available.
- As regards road accidents, it is important to make the distinction between those occurring on motorways and those taking place on other roads, bearing in mind the special regulations that may govern certain communications routes or sensitive areas.
- Keep identity papers and important personal documents (medical and vaccination certificates and details of blood type) and any personal medicines with you.
- As soon as the crash or shipwreck occurs, try to free yourself from the cabin and to escape quickly from the wreckage, especially if there is a danger of fire or dangerous leaks. - If possible, activate the rescue process by alerting the local security or specialist services (special telephone networks and numbers).Generally, the special disaster rescue plans (red alert, special plans for the airport) will only be activated with the agreement of the competent political authorities.If the incident occurs outside the area under control of the airport authorities, the political authorities of the affected area will be in charge of the deployment of local intervention teams (police, fire brigade, civil protection, health services, etc.).If need be, specialists in dealing with dangerous substances (chemical or radioactive products, hydrocarbons, etc.) and the health services (helicopters, ambulances, specially trained medical personnel) can also be called upon to help.In general, a special plan drawn up as a precaution will be activated.The principles of intervention are as follows: - In the case of an air disaster occurring on, or in the immediate vicinity of, an airport (generally within a 5 kilometre radius), control of the incident is the responsibility of the airport authorities since control of the air traffic is the responsibility of the airport in question and the control tower is in charge of warning the security and intervention services.They can, if need be, call upon local fire brigades and civil defence reinforcements.Passengers must obey the directives of the personnel on board (protective and rescue measures) and behave as they are instructed by the regulations on disaster situations, especially air, rail or maritime disasters.As far as search, rescue and assistance operations are concerned, the means or system of transport involved and the area (country) where it occurs will determine who is the person in charge at the disaster site.Moreover, maritime nations generally possess a national service for the sea and navigable channels which is responsible for ensuring the supervision and security of national waters and coasts and also the organisation of rescue at sea.Because of the specific conditions of navigation at sea, on lakes and rivers, interventions should be the object, in every state concerned, of special emergency plans put into action as soon as the alert is given by a chief of operations named in advance.