Tags: Ms Obama College ThesisEssays AppendicesBusiness Tax Planning StrategiesNullification Crisis EssaysWhere To Put Thesis Statement In ApaStandard Format For Research PaperShort Opinion Essay About SmokingReflective Essay On Being A Teenager
Anti-utopian, conservatives seek to achieve limited goals. They honor variety: local answers for local problems.Thus they eschew monism and universalism: big, one-size-fits-all solutions, such as those offered by Marxism and fascism.And yet conservatives such as James Burnham and Joseph Mc Carthy should have appreciated containment in general, and George C.
After World War II, the United States, triumphant abroad and undamaged at home, saw a door wide open for world supremacy. foreign policy establishment was mobilized to confront this "enemy," and the Marshall Plan was an integral part of this campaign. [For details, see William Blum's essay on the use of the atomic bomb.] After the war, anti-communism continued as the leitmotif of American foreign policy as naturally as if World War II and the alliance with the Soviet Union had not happened. corporations — a major reason for helping to rebuild the European economies; e.g., a billion dollars of tobacco at today's prices, spurred by U. --Suppressing the Left all over Western Europe, most notably sabotaging the Communist Parties in France and Italy in their bids for legal, non-violent, electoral victory.
Only the thing called "communism" stood in the way, politically, militarily, and ideologically. Along with the CIA, the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, the Council on Foreign Relations, certain corporations, and a few other private institutions, the Marshall Plan was one more arrow in the quiver of those striving to remake Europe to suit Washington's desires: --Spreading the capitalist gospel — to counter strong postwar tendencies towards socialism. Marshall Plan funds were secretly siphoned off to finance this endeavor, and the promise of aid to a country, or the threat of its cutoff, was used as a bullying club; indeed, France and Italy would certainly have been exempted from receiving aid if they had not gone along with the plots to exclude the communists from any kind of influential role. had the right to control not only how Marshall Plan dollars were spent, but also to approve the expenditure of an equivalent amount of the local currency, giving Washington substantial power over the internal plans and programs of the European states; welfare programs for the needy survivors of the war were looked upon with disfavor by the United States; even rationing smelled too much like socialism and had to go or be scaled down; nationalization of industry was even more vehemently opposed by Washington.
This interpretation is borne out when the ERP is construed in the light of a classic text, (1957), by the Harvard University government professor Samuel P. * * * In his understanding of conservatism, Huntington inclines toward Edmund Burke’s and Russell Kirk’s enthusiasm for traditional, organic societies, rather than toward libertarianism.
In their foreign policy, he says, conservatives promote “conservative realism.” They recognize the presence of self-interest and the role of power in human relations, and they tend to cherish existing institutions.
The Clinton Scandals Behind President Clinton's impeachment. Sometimes, the goals may be fairly broad, like preventing an adversary from gaining an advantage or bolstering an old order, but an ulterior motive can usually be found, which brings us to the post-World War II “Marshall Plan,” as William Blum examines in this guest essay which appeared in his “Anti-Empire Report”: Amidst all the stirring political upheavals in North Africa and the Middle East, the name "Marshall Plan" keeps being repeated by political figures and media around the world as the key to rebuilding the economies of those societies to complement the political advances, which hopefully will be somewhat progressive. When I ask the person to give me some examples of what s/he thinks show the virtuous face of America's dealings with the world in modern times, one of the things mentioned — almost without exception — is The Marshall Plan.
That money almost always reflects some special interest because that’s how spending gets approved. During my years of writing and speaking about the harm and injustice inflicted upon the world by unending United States interventions, I've often been met with resentment from those who accuse me of chronicling only the negative side of U. foreign policy and ignoring the many positive sides.[For more on various aspects of the Marshall Plan see, for example, Joyce & Gabriel Kolko, Killing Hope: US Military and CIA Interventions Since World War 2; Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Superpower; West-Bloc Dissident: A Cold War Memoir; Freeing the World to Death: Essays on the American Empire. (To make a blog comment about this or other stories, you can use your normal e-mail address and password.Ignore the prompt for a Google account.) To comment to us by e-mail, click here.If students recall anything about the European Recovery Program (the Marshall Plan’s formal designation), they characterize it as a generous foreign-aid scheme undertaken by the United States government to rebuild Western Europe after the Second World War.And they might remember that this humanitarian initiative was named for Secretary of State George C. Like many Americans, therefore, they are apt to associate the European Recovery Program (ERP) with humanitarian relief, with General Marshall, with peace, with idealism: America at its best.The CIA also skimmed large amounts of Marshall Plan funds to covertly maintain cultural institutions, journalists, and publishers, at home and abroad, for the heated and omnipresent propaganda of the Cold War; the selling of the Marshall Plan to the American public and elsewhere was entwined with fighting "the red menace." Moreover, in its covert operations, CIA personnel at times used the Marshall Plan as cover, and one of the Plan's chief architects, Richard Bissell, then moved to the CIA, stopping off briefly at the Ford Foundation, a long-time conduit for CIA covert funds. The Marshall Plan imposed all kinds of restrictions on the recipient countries, all manner of economic and fiscal criteria which had to be met, designed for a wide open return to free enterprise. The great bulk of Marshall Plan funds returned to the United States, or never left, to purchase American goods, making American corporations among the chief beneficiaries.The program could be seen as more a joint business operation between governments than an American "handout"; often it was a business arrangement between American and European ruling classes, many of the latter fresh from their service to the Third Reich, some of the former as well; or it was an arrangement between congressmen and their favorite corporations to export certain commodities, including a lot of military goods.Armin Grünbacher, lecturer in modern history at the University of Birmingham, presents an alternative reading, one that takes into account the harsh realities of the Cold War.He points out that “the originally propagated view that the Marshall Plan was an altruistic endeavor through which the U. saved Europe from collapse and starvation has long been dismissed and replaced with a more realistic approach to international affairs.” In the years immediately following the Second World War, “ Postwar conservatives were leery of fighting the Cold War on these terms.To donate so we can continue reporting and publishing stories like the one you just read, click here. is a product of The Consortium for Independent Journalism, Inc., a non-profit organization that relies on donations from its readers to produce these stories and keep alive this Web publication.