He became a dominant figure in Britain almost immediately following publication of his in 1687, with the consequence that “Newtonianism” of one form or another had become firmly rooted there within the first decade of the eighteenth century.
His influence on the continent, however, was delayed by the strong opposition to his theory of gravity expressed by such leading figures as Christiaan Huygens and Leibniz, both of whom saw the theory as invoking an occult power of action at a distance in the absence of Newton's having proposed a contact mechanism by means of which forces of gravity could act.
(During the early 1680s he undertook a critical review of classical texts in geometry, a review that reduced his view of the importance of symbolic mathematics.) His lectures from 1670 to 1672 concerned optics, with a large range of experiments presented in detail.
Newton went public with his work in optics in early 1672, submitting material that was read before the Royal Society and then published in the .
So, though they remained unpublished, Newton's advances in mathematics scarcely remained a secret.
This period as Lucasian Professor also marked the beginning of his more private researches in alchemy and theology.Two years later Isaac went to boarding school in Grantham, returning full time to manage the farm, not very successfully, in 1659. After further schooling at Grantham, he entered Trinity College in 1661, somewhat older than most of his classmates.These years of Newton's youth were the most turbulent in the history of England.When his mother Hannah married the 63 year old Barnabas Smith three years later and moved to her new husband's residence, Isaac was left behind with his maternal grandparents.(Isaac learned to read and write from his maternal grandmother and mother, both of whom, unlike his father, were literate.) Hannah returned to Woolsthorpe with three new children in 1653, after Smith died. from Cambridge, and the headmaster of the Grantham school then persuaded his mother that Isaac should prepare for the university.By 1671 he had completed most of a treatise length account of the calculus, which he then found no one would publish.This failure appears to have diverted his interest in mathematics away from the calculus for some time, for the mathematical lectures he registered during this period mostly concern algebra.As the promise of the theory of gravity became increasingly substantiated, starting in the late 1730s but especially during the 1740s and 1750s, Newton became an equally dominant figure on the continent, and “Newtonianism,” though perhaps in more guarded forms, flourished there as well.What physics textbooks now refer to as “Newtonian mechanics” and “Newtonian science” consists mostly of results achieved on the continent between 17.This led to four years of exchanges with various figures who challenged his claims, including both Robert Hooke and Christiaan Huygens — exchanges that at times exasperated Newton to the point that he chose to withdraw from further public exchanges in natural philosophy.Before he largely isolated himself in the late 1670s, however, he had also engaged in a series of sometimes long exchanges in the mid 1670s, most notably with John Collins (who had a copy of “De Analysi”) and Leibniz, concerning his work on the calculus.