Spanish Civil War Essay

On October 1, 1936, he was named head of state and set up a government in Burgos.

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On one side, the Nationalist, were most Roman Catholics, important elements of the military, most landowners, and many businessmen.

On the other side, the Republican, were urban workers, most agricultural labourers, and many of the educated middle class.

Republican violence occurred primarily during the early stages of the war before the rule of law was restored, but the Nationalist violence was part of a conscious policy of terror.

The matter of how many were killed remains highly contentious; however, it is generally believed that the toll of Nationalist violence was higher.

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Join Britannica's Publishing Partner Program and our community of experts to gain a global audience for your work!The following day the remnant of the Republican government surrendered; Franco would establish himself as dictator and remain in power until his death on November 20, 1975.The war was an outcome of a polarization of Spanish life and politics that had developed over previous decades.In any event, the proliferation of executions, murders, and assassinations on both sides reflects the great passions that the Civil War unleashed.The captaincy of the Nationalists was gradually assumed by General Franco, leading forces he had brought from Morocco.The Republican forces had put down the uprising in other areas, except for some of the larger Andalusian cities, including Sevilla (Seville), Granada, and Córdoba.The Nationalists and Republicans proceeded to organize their respective territories and to repress opposition or suspected opposition.On one side were the anarchists and militant socialists, who viewed the war as a revolutionary struggle and spearheaded widespread collectivization of agriculture, industry, and services; on the other were the more moderate socialists and republicans, whose objective was the preservation of the Republic.Seeking allies against the threat of Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union had embraced a Popular Front strategy, and, as a result, the Comintern directed Spanish communists to support the Republicans.The president of the Spanish Republic until nearly the end of the war was Manuel Azaña, an anticlerical liberal.Internecine conflict compromised the Republican effort from the outset.

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