Tb Essay Conclusion

Tb Essay Conclusion-38
TB can affect any organ system, although manifestations are most commonly related to the chest.The lungs are the most common and often the initial site of involvement.

TB can affect any organ system, although manifestations are most commonly related to the chest.

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The German doctor Robert Koch is considered the founder of modern bacteriology.

His discoveries made a significant contribution to the development of the first ‘magic bullets’ - chemicals developed to attack specific bacteria - and Koch was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1905.

Chest involvement is most commonly pulmonary, followed by lymph nodal and pleural disease (latter two are included under EPTB).

Chest wall, cardiac, breast, and skeletal involvement can also occur in the thorax; however, these are beyond the scope of the current review.

Koch's assistant Julius Richard Petri (1852-1921) developed the Petri dish, which made the observation of bacteria even easier.

Koch and his team also developed ways of staining bacteria to improve the bacteria’s visibility under the microscope, and were able to identify the bacterial causes of tuberculosis (1882) and cholera (1883).As per the World Health Organization (WHO) reports, 6.1 million cases of TB were notified by national TB programs in 2012, of which 5.4 million were new cases.Of these, 2.5 million had sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB), 1.9 million had sputum smear-negative PTB, and 0.8 million had extrapulmonary TB (EPTB); case type was unknown in the remaining cases.Sputum smear results take several days while culture results need several weeks.TB is a global health problem and the second leading infectious cause of death, after human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).The radiological features depend on age, underlying immune status, and prior exposure.[Figure 1] depicts the natural history and progression of the disease.Literature is lacking and no consensus exists on use of ultrasound (USG), CT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in such patients.With India having a large burden of TB, it is important to have established imaging criteria and recommendations.Patients of PTB/EPTB also present with fever, loss of appetite and loss of weight, chest pain or dyspnea.Role of imaging in CTBCTB is conventionally divided into primary and post-primary (or reactivation) TB (PPT), each with corresponding radiological patterns, albeit with considerable overlap.


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