The hilly terrain of Nagasaki — and the fact that the bomb was dropped almost 2 miles (3.2 km) from its intended target — prevented greater destruction.
Nonetheless, by the end of 1945, about 80,000 people died from the bomb over Nagasaki.
However, no long-term genetic damage has been reported among the survivor's children, who are subject to ongoing screening.
After the victors' initial celebrations quieted down, there was profound soul-searching by most of the people involved in the decision to use atomic weaponry.
After several years of intensive research under strict secrecy, the Manhattan Project developed two different bombs that used two different nuclear materials: uranium-235 and plutonium-239.
About 140 pounds (64 kilograms) of highly enriched uranium-235 was used to create "Little Boy," a nuclear-fission bomb that worked by shooting a large, hollow cylinder of uranium over a smaller uranium insert.On that day, at Alamogordo, New Mexico, the first atomic bomb blast the world had ever witnessed occurred, ushering in the Atomic Age.One of the few buildings left standing in Hiroshima was the Genbaku Dome of the Hiroshima Chamber of Commerce, which stood very close to the epicenter of the atomic bomb blast on Aug. Today it is preserved as a peace memorial and is a UNESCO world heritage site.Practically everybody within a radius of 6,500 feet was killed or seriously injured and all buildings crushed or disemboweled."To the surprise of some Allied military commanders, the destruction of Hiroshima did not bring about a Japanese surrender. 9, a B-29 named Bockscar (a pun on the aircraft's captain, Frederick C.Of the cities remaining on the Allied force's list of potential targets, the ancient fortress city of Kokura was at the top of the list. Bock) took off from Tinian, headed for the city of Kokura.It, too, was obscured by clouds, but the crew was able to find a break in the cloud cover, and shortly after 11 a.m., "Fat Man" exploded over Nagasaki.The powerful blast destroyed much of the city, and at least 40,000 people were killed immediately.The bomb exploded about 1,900 feet (580 meters) over the unsuspecting city.The enormous blast instantly destroyed most of the city and claimed some 45,000 lives; another 19,000 people are estimated to have died from radiation exposure or other direct effects within four months."The mushroom [cloud] itself was a spectacular sight, a bubbling mass of purple-gray smoke and you could see it had a red core in it and everything was burning inside," said the Enola Gay's tail gunner, Staff Sgt. "As we got farther away, we could see the base of the mushroom and below we could see what looked like a few-hundred-foot layer of debris and smoke."On the ground, however, the scene was more horrific than spectacular.Casualty estimates range from 40,000 to 70,000 dead.On August 10, 1945 Japan offered to surrender to the United States and the Allies. Historians continue to debate the rationale behind the decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan. What would have been the human costs of an invasion of Japan?