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Mind then misperceives itself as a multitude of separate alien “objects”–things other than itself.The macrodialectic and all other dialectics are based on Christianity’s Johannine separation-and-return mythology; all Hegelian dialectics separate from a concept in the thesis, going to that something’s opposite (antithesis), and then return to the thesis concept.
Thesis: British and French power hegemony after World War 1 Anti-thesis: Hitler Synthesis: USA hegemony Thesis: Traditional conservatism Anti-thesis: Marxism Synthesis: Globalism Thesis: USA government losing domestic power Anti-thesis: 9/11 Synthesis: Patriot act, NSA spying Thesis: Feminism Anti-thesis: PUA, MRA, neomasculinity Synthesis: ?
Hegel proposed his dialectic as a natural way of arriving at the truth, but had in mind that the nation itself was the vehicle to create new syntheses.
He created this debate between the character of Socrates, on one side, and some person such as Thrasymachus or group of people to whom Socrates was talking on the other side.
Socrates’ interlocutors propose definitions of philosophical concepts or express views that Socrates then challenges or opposes.
The final result from that clash, the synthesis, is the best conclusion.
In all likelihood, the synthesis is not the final and absolute truth.Marx’s basic dialectic (one of four) saw history separating from and returning to Communism, going from communal ownership poverty (primitive communism, or gens) to private ownership wealth (slavery, feudalism, capitalism) to communal ownership wealth (final communism).Tillich’s basic dialectic (one of many) separates from and returns to God, advancing from Yes to God Yes to supernaturalism (theism) to No to God No to supernaturalism (atheism) to Yes to God No to supernaturalism (humanism: humanity is the nonsupernatural “God above the God of theism”).To Hegel, the two conflicting ideas are reconciled to form a new proposition.Therefore, Hegelianism can be summed up as “the rational alone is real”, which means that all reality is capable of being expressed in rational categories.The back-and-forth debate between opposing sides produces a kind of linear progression or evolution in philosophical views or positions.Hegel saw this method of a back-and-forth dialectic between Socrates and his interlocutors thus becomes Plato’s way of arguing against the earlier, less sophisticated views or positions and for the more sophisticated ones later.Since Mueller’s 1958 article calling Hegelian dialectics a “legend,” it has been fashionable to deny that Hegel used thesis-antithesis-synthesis dialectics.But in truth, Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit has 28 dialectics hidden on four outline levels, and The Philosophy of History has 10 more on three outline levels.He argued that Plato’s dialectics deals only with limited philosophical claims and is unable to get beyond skepticism or nothingness (SL-M 55–6; SL-d G 34–5; PR, Remark to §31).According to Hegel, if an argument leads to a contradiction, we must conclude that the premises are false.