For example, in the spray pyrolysis technique, In and Ga is more efficient than Al since the Al atoms are preferably at interstitial sites of the Zn O lattice and decrease the mobility .Some reported electrical and optical properties of Zn O films with different dopants prepared by PLD are summarized in Table 1.
Such trend indicates the possible significant promotion of Zn O-based TCO films.
Zn O films have been prepared through various kinds of methods [14, 15] and each of them has its own advantages and drawbacks.
A carrier concentration on the order of 10: Sn, or ITO), and Zn O (Zn O: Al and Zn O: Ga) films have been researched so far in this field [5, 6].
Among them, tin-doped indium-oxide (ITO) is the one in practical use [7, 8].
In Section 2, we focus on recent research on Al, Ga doping, and codoping.
Zno Thin Film Thesis
The position of the dopant atoms and solubility limit can be related to the film preparation methods. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.Zn O-based transparent conductive thin films have attracted much attention as a promising substitute material to the currently used indium-tin-oxide thin films in transparent electrode applications.However, the detailed function of the dopants, acting on the electrical and optical properties of Zn O-based transparent conductive thin films, is not clear yet, which has limited the development and practical applications of Zn O transparent conductive thin films.Growth conditions such as substrate type, growth temperature, and ambient atmosphere all play important roles in structural, electrical, and optical properties of films.Besides, it has a more proper work function for the transparent contact cathode electrodes of transparent OLEDs .Nevertheless, many problems associated with substituting Zn O-based TCO films for ITO still exist.For the design and realization of Zn O-based devices, one of the most significant issues is doping, which necessarily involves the heavy doping with trivalent elements from the group III (Al, Ga, In).Minami summed up the resistivity of impurity-doped binary compound TCO films reported among thirty years and found that the obtained minimum resistivity of impurity-doped Zn O films is still decreasing, while Sn O films have essentially remained unchanged .Each dopant was at its appropriate content and all films were fabricated under optimum-processing-parameter conditions to achieve lower resistivity and higher transmittance.ions, which minimizes the Zn O lattice deformations even at higher doping concentrations [18, 21].